Insulin Resistance. What is it & Why should I care?

Insulin Resistance

I’m sure we’ve all heard of the hormone insulin. But, what is insulin resistance and why should you even care what it is? Approximately 80% of US Americans are insulin resistant in the world today. This is a scary statistic, especially because inusulin resistance is PRE-DIABETIC and no one even really knows that this is happening inside of their bodies. 

What is Insulin's Role in the Body?

Insulin's role in the body

Before we dig in to the nitty gritty, let’s talk about insulin and it’s role inside the human body. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta-cells located in the pancreas. The pancreas, which is located under the stomach also produces enzymes that aid in our digestion. 

Insulin has many functions. One of the many functions involves regulating the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, into a molecule called glucose. Glucose can be used by the cells to produce energy. Insulin allows the cells in the body to absorb glucose or sugar ultimately lowering the sugar that is present in the blood stream. 

Insulin is your body’s defense mechanism against sugar in the body because sugar is TOXIC to the body. After a meal is consumed, blood glucose levels increase and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood. Insulin is like a traffic cop. It will direct fat, glucose, vitamins, minerals and amino acids to the cells that need them. 

Insulin in the body acts as a “feedback loop” within the body. When your cells are thoroughly fed, it will send a signal back to the pancreas to stop releasing insulin. 

Unfortunately for many Americans, and other people throughout the world, levels of glucose and insulin are imbalanced. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the feedback loop throws errors. The body will not respond to normal actions of insulin. Muscle, liver and fat cells have difficulty “hearing” the shut off notice. In order to compensate for this, the body produces much more insulin than it needs. In fact, people who have insulin resistance have approximately 5-7 times more insulin in their body than someone who’s body is functioning correctly. 

As insulin resistance builds up, the beta cells in the pancreas are unable to produce sufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose. As a result, glucose levels can elevate and result in prediabetes, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions. 

Insulin has other jobs as well. For instance, protein will go into the cell with the help of insulin. When the body is resistant to insulin, the cells will not absorb the amount of protein needed because the receptors are “turned off”. That is why you’ll see diabetic patients having loss of collagen, muscle weakness, and joint and disc issues. 

Also potassium can not enter the cell when you are insulin resistant. Without potassium entering the cell, one may have increased fatigue, higher sodium levels (aka inflammation and swelling in the body), increase in heart rate, increase in blood pressure, arrythmias, palpitations, edema and swelling in legs and feet, muscle cramps and even constipation. 

Insulin resistance is very common.  An estimated 24% of US adults are said to be insulin resistant. Many people are unaware they have it until they develop Type 2 Diabetes. 

Signs that you may be insulin resistant.

signs of insulin resistance

How Do I Treat Insulin Resistance?

Given the prevalence of insulin resistance, how can one treat this effectively? The FDA unfortunately hasn’t approved any drugs to specifically treat insulin resistance or pre-diabetes. However, some physicians will prescribe two classes of drugs that are normally used in type 2 diabetes. 

With that being said, is this the best course of action to take? Should you treat high insulin or insulin resistance with MORE INSULIN? No. The best way to treat insulin resistance is to modify one’s lifestyle behaviors. Food choices and exercise are considered to be the most effective methods in restoring the ability of tissues to properly respond to insulin. 

In order to reduce the secretion of insulin in the body, we recommend lowering carbohydrate intake and practice intermittent fasting. 

Provided that the ketogenic diet is an effective method in losing weight and lowering blood glucose, can it be utilized to lower insulin resistance and increase levels of insulin in the body? We say yes. 

keto diet reverses insulin resistance

The majority of human studies on how the keto diet impacts blood sugar control share a similar theme: a low carb, high fat diet has the potential to REVERSE insulin resistance. 

Although there is no “standard” dietary treatment for insulin resistance, we do have promising evidence that supports the effectiveness of four factors. 

1. Calorie restriction. 

Most of the research on type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance supports the use of calorie restriction for improving many metabolic issues that contribute to these conditions. Both the keto diet and low cal diets have been shown to reduce insulin resistance. 

One way to reduce insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity is by putting your cells in an “underfed” or energy-deficient state. Although eating fewer calories is the simplest approach to reducing insulin resistance, it’s not easy for many of us to implement successfully. Bee-Xtreme appetite suppressants were designed to help with just that. 


2. Body Fat Reduction

Although calorie restriction directly decrease insulin resistance by reducing the energy load on our cells, it also improves insulin signaling indirectly by reducing body fat. Both visceral and subcutaneous fat play a role in insulin resistance. 

Where does the excess insulin go? Visceral FAT. It’s the type of fat that accumulates in our abdominal region, around our vital organs. This insidious type of fat has been found to act as an endocrine organ, secreting various signaling molecules that can, directly and indirectly, increase insulin resistance. By reducing our visceral fat stores, we can decrease the secretion of these potentially harmful signaling molecules and improve overall metabolic health. This will increase sensitivity. 

3. Carbohydrate restriction

To help diabetics manage their blood sugar levels, doctors will typically prescribe a diet that mostly consists of low glycemic index foods. They will advise against eating foods that cause huge increases in blood sugar levels as a way to help the patient regulate his levels without needing much medication. 

One way of doing this without medications is decreasing carbohydrate consumption in the diet. Since carbs are the only macronutrient that can cause significant fluctuations in blood sugar levels, restricting them will reduce your insulin needs and potentially increase insulin sensitivity. 

4. Ketones

By restricting carbs to the degree that the keto diet recommends, you will stimulate the production of ketones and eventually enter
nutritional ketosis. As a result, you will start burning more ketones as a way to make up for the lack of dietary carbohydrates.

Ketones also play a crucial role as signaling molecules that stimulate specific genetic processes related to metabolic health and longevity. For example, our primary ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), has been found to inhibit some histone deacetylases (HDACs) in a way that may lower glucose and insulin levels, decrease insulin resistance, prevent weight gain, and improve energy efficiency.

Unfortunately, most of the research on the signaling properties of ketones has been done on mice, so it is unclear if ketones will do the same for humans. With that being said, ketones have been found to be an appetite suppressant in humans. This means that they can indirectly improve insulin sensitivity by causing us to eat fewer calories.

Xtreme Ketosis new

Sugar withdrawals & your 4 week plan to say good-bye for good!

That white, powdery substance just makes you feel good. You can’t get it off your mind, and you keep coming back for more. The more you have it, the more you want it! But even when you try to stay away from it, it finds ways to sneak into your life almost daily. What can you do?

We’re not talking about some dangerous or illegal drug here; we’re talking about sugar. Although it’s considered harmless in comparison, sugar, in excess, can cause a host of problems for a lot of us: cravings, binge eating, weight gain and heart disease among them. According to the USDA, the average American consumed 151 pounds of sugar in 1999—an all-time high. Since then, consumption has dropped slightly and in 2010 the average American consumed 132 pounds. (To put that into perspective, consider that the number was just 4 pounds in the year 1700.) At least half of the sugar we consume comes from soft drinks, fruit drinks, and sports drinks. The rest sneaks into our diets in the form of ketchup, teriyaki sauce, chocolate milk and the obvious sweets like cookies, cakes, ice cream and even breakfast cereal. Surprisingly, some “healthy foods” such as yogurt and instant flavored oatmeal can pack in 20 to 30 grams (five to seven teaspoons) of unnecessary added sugar! It seems like we’re drowning in sugar, and nobody is wearing a life vest.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that we limit our daily sugar consumption to 7% or less of our daily calorie intake—that’s about 6 teaspoons (100 calories) for women and nine teaspoons (150 calories) for men. But that adds up fast. Just one 12-ounce can of regular soda contains eight to 10 teaspoons of sugar and 130 to 150 calories. One glazed donut contains six teaspoons, and a half cup ice cream (the standard serving size, although most portions are much, much larger) contains four grams of added sugar!

Why Should You Care? Is Sugar Actually Bad for You?

Well, aside from the increased bulge around the waistline, diets high in sugar are strongly linked to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, elevated triglycerides, low HDL (good) cholesterol levels, and heart disease. Sugar intake has also been linked to depression, migraines, poor eyesight, autoimmune diseases (such as arthritis, and multiple sclerosis), gout and osteoporosis.

Recent research has shown that a high intake of carbohydrates, including sugar, releases a feel good chemical in the brain called serotonin. Think of how you feel after indulging in a high sugar meal or treat—almost euphoric, right? The high of a sugar rush is temporary though. After a few hours—or even a few minutes—you start to crash and you become tired, fatigued and lethargic.

Although sweet foods are tempting and delicious to most people (blame Mother Nature for that!), the more sugar you eat, the higher your tolerance becomes. So if you have a strong sweet tooth or intense cravings for sugar, chances are not that you were born that way, but that your dietary habits and food choices created the sugar monster you may have become.

Fortunately, we can reverse this tolerance in just a couple of weeks by cutting out sugar. Once you have decreased your threshold, something that tasted perfectly sweet a few weeks ago, will begin to taste too sweet to eat, and that can help you reduce your intake of the sweet stuff.

Withdrawal Symptoms? Seriously?! ( Is sugar like a drug?? YES!)

With an addictiveness similar to cocaine, quitting sugar can come with a host of not-so-fun withdrawal symptoms. The withdrawal symptoms are not fun at all but WE PROMISE it’s worth it in the end!!

Stage 1: Seems easy enough, right?

At this stage, your body doesn’t recognize that you’re no longer pumping fructose into your system. This is usually one to two days.

Stage 2: Cravings, oh! The Cravings!!

Ohhhh, those cravings. Yep, fructose is one addictive beast and it won’t let go of you without a fight. Plus, the temptation will be everywhere. Some Programmers have actually told us they’d have dreams about giving into their cravings and bingeing on sweet treats. Stay strong. Eat foods higher in good fat to help keep you sane. The best is yet to come.

 

3. Headaches. Oh, the headaches.

But not before the headaches. Much like when you give up that other addictive vice, caffeine, headaches are a very commonly reported symptom of sugar withdrawal. Time to invest in some Excedrin Migraine, and make sure to drink plenty of water (especially if soft drinks or juice were your main source of hydration beforehand).

4. You may feel some aches and pains.

Some people report aches and pains, or even flu-like symptoms, in the throes of withdrawal. One remedy we’d vouch for is a warm bath with Epsom salts, which studies have suggested may help flush out environmental toxins. But if you feel really out of sorts, check yourself out with a doctor.

5. Mood swings may be… less than pleasant.
At this point, your brain receptors are screaming: SUGAR SUGAR SUGAR SUGAR SUGAR. Between that and the headaches and the cravings, you may understandably have some gnarly mood swings. It’s helpful to have a solid support network around you during this stage, to help you remember why you started. Luckily, the great folks in our community are here to help you out!

 

6. Some people even get “the shakes”.
Just like a T. Swift song, your body may need to “shake it off, shake it off”. Mild tremors are linked to stress and blood sugar drops, so try having a snack or herbal tea to see if that helps. And do see a doctor if you are worried.

7. But suddenly, you’ll come out the other side feeling better than ever.
It could be a few days, but you’ll suddenly “get” what everyone was talking about. You’ll feel brighter, clearer and better than ever, as each day without the white stuff gets easier. No more cravings, no more blood sugar roller coasters, no more sugar-related headaches or 3pm slumps.

Remember: The more sugar you’ve consumed on a daily basis, the worse the detox symptoms. Hang in there!

Cutting Out Sugar: A 4-Week Action Plan
 
While the occasional sweet treat won’t make or break your weight loss or your health, many people have trouble stopping after a sensible portion or saying no to sugar when it’s available. If you feel out of control around sugar, then a sugar “detox” is a great way to reduce your cravings, eat better, and bring sugar back to where it belongs: as an occasional treat that you consciously choose to eat in a mindful manner, not a daily treat occurrence that controls you.
 
Follow this month-long plan to break your sugar addiction!
 
Week 1: Identify Sugar and Where It’s Hiding
 
The first step in conquering your sugar habit is to rid your pantry and refrigerator of added sugar. Some things (think ice cream, cookies and candy) are obvious, but most of us need to look closer at where the sugar in our diets is coming from. This will require a bit of label reading in the beginning, but after a while, it will become easier.
 
In order to cut back on hidden or added sugar, scan the ingredients list of a food label. If you see any of the following terms listed, then sugar has been added to the product in one form or another and it is best left on the shelf at the store—especially if that sugar shows up within the first five ingredients of any food product.
 
Agave nectar
Agave syrup
Barley malt
Beet sugar
Brown rice syrup
Brown sugar
Buttered syrup
Cane sugar
Cane juice
Cane juice crystals
Carob syrup
Confectioner’s sugar
Corn syrup
High fructose corn syrup
Corn sugar
Corn sweetener
            Corn syrup solids
Crystalized fructose
Date sugar
Dextran
Dextrose
Diatase
Diastatic malt
Evaporated cane juice
Fructose
Fruit juice
Fruit juice concentrate
Glucose
Glucose solids
Golden sugar
Golden syrup
Grape sugar
            Grape juice concentrate
Honey
Invert sugar
Lactose
Malt
Maltodextrain
Maltose
Maple syrup
Molasses
Raw sugar
Refiner’s syrup
Sorghum syrup
Sucanat
Sucrose
Sugar
Turbinado sugar
Yellow sugar
 
This first week is about awareness. Reading labels before you buy—or bite. How many of your favorite foods contain hidden sugars in the top of their ingredients lists?
 
Once you have identified the sources of sugar in your diet, clean out your kitchen. Throw out or donate all of the products that contain hidden or added sugars, including any juice, soda, candy, sweets and seemingly healthy snacks like granola bars, fruit and grain bars, instant flavored oatmeal and sports drinks. This may sound drastic, but stay with me!
 
Remember, you don’t have to throw away everything that is sweet! Natural sugar, like the kind you find in whole fruit, contains vitamins, minerals and fiber, which are lost in the processing of juice. Milk contains naturally occurring sugars, but also provides calcium, vitamin D and protein. So unlike soda, fruit juices and other processed foods, whole fruit and dairy products provide us with essential vitamins and minerals that our bodies need. Be wary of certain fruit- or milk-based products that contain added sugars though: flavored milk, many yogurts, fruits canned or jellied in added sugar or syrups, and the like. Opt for unflavored skim or 1% milk, plain yogurt or Greek yogurt, and whole pieces of fruit. Remember, we are trying to cut out the 151 pounds a year of added sugar, not the naturally occurring sugar found in whole foods.
 
Week 2: Stock Your Sugar-Free Kitchen
 
In one week, you’ve probably found lots of sugar in your diet. Some of it may have been obvious, like those frozen waffles or lattes from the local coffee joint. But others might not have been so clear, as sugar tends to lurk in many “diet” foods and lower-fat foods, added by manufacturers to make their low-cal offerings taste better.
 
Now that you know what to look for (and avoid), it’s time to replace the products you tossed with sugar-free counterparts. For example, replace high-sugar cereals with a whole grain cereal that contains little to no added sugars. Sweeten it naturally with fresh berries or half of a diced banana. Instead of snacking on candy or cookies, reach for a handful of nuts or some raw veggies and hummus. Replace sweetened yogurt with Greek yogurt or plain yogurt. Look back at week one and the foods you used to eat that contained sugar. Can you find no-sugar oatmeal? A healthier snack than a sugar-sweetened smoothie (how about a whole piece of fruit)? A more filling afternoon treat than that sugary “protein bar” (such as peanut butter on whole-grain crackers)?
 
When choosing a refreshing beverage to quench your thirst, keep in mind that you want to eat your calories, not drink them. Choose ice cold water flavored with a squeeze of fresh lemon or an orange slice. Or flavor unsweetened iced tea with fresh mint, crushed raspberries, or a squeeze of citrus.
 
One tip to help you avoid added sugar at the supermarket is to shop the perimeter of the grocery store as much as possible. Think about the general layout of a grocery store: The outside is home to fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats, dairy products, and whole grain breads and the inside aisles are stocked with cookies, chips, soda, fruit juice, cake mixes, and other processed foods. Spend most of your time on the outside and only go down the inner aisles for specific products, like whole-grain pasta.
 
Never shop on an empty stomach and always shop with a list. Shopping while hungry can lead you to adding all kinds of snacks and impulse buys to your cart. Meal planning can be a tricky task at first, but following a meal plan is an important part of breaking the sugar addiction. It will help to keep you on track and help prevent stopping for fast food when you don’t have a game plan for dinner. Spend a little time on Sunday afternoons jotting down some meal ideas for throughout the week. Make a list of the food items you will need to make the meals you wrote down and stick to it!
 
What about Sugar Substitutes?

Sugar substitutes and sugar alcohols have their place and they may be beneficial in helping you to break the sugar addiction or they may not. You will have to experiment and see how they affect you and your cravings. Even though they may not add additional calories to your diet, sugar substitutes and sugar alcohols might not help you to BREAK the sugar addiction since they are adding the sweet flavor to your diet. In some people, they may even increase your sweet tooth.
 
Week 3: Stop the Sugar Cravings
 
Now you really start to put your plan into action. You’ve identified the sources of added sugar in your diet and replaced those foods with healthier and more wholesome alternatives. Your kitchen is now set up for success!
 
This week’s focus should be on making a conscious effort to avoid sugary foods. When a craving strikes, try going for a walk or simply drinking a glass of water. Take a hot bath or get lost in a good book. Typically any craving will pass if you wait it out long enough. But it’s important to begin understanding the difference between true hunger and food cravings. If you are truly hungry, a handful of nuts or some raw veggies dipped in hummus will sound appetizing, so go ahead and eat one of your healthy snacks. But if you’re craving something sweet or a specific sugary food, use a distraction technique.
 
The first week of saying no to sugar will be the hardest, but the more diligently you stick to your plan, the better you’ll fare in the end. Even a tiny taste of sugar during this time period can lead to setbacks.
 
After a couple sugar-free weeks, your sugar threshold will start to decrease and you will find that you no longer crave sugar or sweets as you once did. As with any lifestyle change, the first couple of weeks are the hardest. Eventually, it will become habit to reach for a mint tea or piece of fruit instead of juice and candy.
 
Week 4: Game Plan for Life
 
Now that you have yanked that sweet tooth, it’s time to devise a plan to prevent a sugar addiction relapse. Although sugar isn’t necessary for health and it’s perfectly fine if you want to continue avoiding it, it probably isn’t realistic for most people to avoid all forms of sugar forever.
 
So if you want to allow a little sweetness back into your life, that’s OK. Moderation is key. Don’t let sugar and sweets become a daily habit. Instead, consider them to be special occasion treats only. With your lowered threshold for sweetness, that shouldn’t be too hard. But if you begin to indulge too often or overindulge over a short period of time (such as a weeklong vacation), you could find yourself back in trouble with sugar all over again.
 
If you slip up, don’t beat yourself up over it. Accept your action and decide to make a better decision next time and move on. Continue to experiment with your new, healthy foods and recipes. You’d be surprised at how many ways you can make treats healthier and use far less sugar than a recipe suggests.
 
And remember: It generally takes about 3-4 weeks for a new behavior to become habit, the most important thing is to stick with it.

sources: iquitsugar.com, shapemagazine.com, droz.com